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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
September-December 2019
Volume 13 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 87-113

Online since Monday, January 6, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and practice of risky sexual behaviours among senior secondary school students in Jos North local government area, Plateau State, Nigeria p. 87
Sunday Asuke, Jesse Musa Kurya, Bisola Tolu Olusanmi, Yvonne Ajikini Hikon, Patricia Eseigbe
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_14_19  
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diseases of public health concern among adolescents and young adults and occur in a quarter of teenagers who are sexually active. This study assessed the knowledge on STIs and the practice of risky sexual behaviours among senior secondary school students in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which a structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographical characteristics, knowledge on STIs and risky behaviours associated with STIs. Multistage sampling technique was used. Analysis was done using SPSS software version 20. Results: A total of 398 adolescents aged 13–20 years with a mean age of 15.5 (1.37) years participated in the study. About 50% were females and 90% of them were Christians. A majority (99.2%) of them had heard about STIs, and the major sources of information were from schools (21.7%), radio (13.7%) and television (13.2%). In all, 19.8%, 65.6% and 14.7% of the respondents had poor, fair and good knowledge of STIs, respectively. Of the 54 (14.7%) students that were sexually active, 48% practiced unprotected sex, 63% had more than one sexual partners and 25.9% had traded sex for money. Knowledge was not statistically significantly associated with the practice of risky sexual behaviour (χ[2] = 5.381, P = 0.250). Conclusion: The study found out that the participants generally had a fair knowledge about the types of STIs and they were found to exhibit worrisome risky sexual behaviour (having multiple sexual partners and recurrent STIs). Reinforcement of the current secondary school curriculum to emphasise comprehensive health education on STIs and dangers of the practice of risky sexual behaviour is needed.
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A clinicopathologic analysis of epulides from a subpopulation of Northern Nigeria p. 93
Abdul-Warith Olaitan Akinshipo, Abdurrazaq O Taiwo, Adebayo A Ibikunle, Ramat O Braimah, Saheed A Olatunji
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_18_19  
Context: Epulides are common oral lesions of the gingivae. Descriptive studies on epulides from a previously unreported Nigerian population are desirable. Aims: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of epulides from a subpopulation in the Northern Nigerian state of Sokoto. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of patients histologically diagnosed with epulis and treated at the Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital. Methods: A 10-year (2007–2017) review of histologically diagnosed oral and maxillofacial lesion was used for this study. Data on age, gender, site and histological diagnosis were retrieved from the hospital records and classified into two groups: fibrous lesions and haemorrhagic lesions, reflecting their clinical presentations. Statistical Analysis Done: Data were summarised using frequency distribution and mean and standard deviation (SD). Comparisons were done with Chi-square test and t-test. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: A total number of 28 gingival epulides out of a total of 644 lesions that were diagnosed were included in the study. Epulis consisted of 15 (53.6%) fibrous epulides and 13 (46.4%) vascular epulides. There were 20 (71.4%) females and 8 (28.6%) males (female:male = 2.5:1). The average age of study participants was 29.4 years ± 16.4 SD. The mean age of fibrous epulides was 22.73 ± 14.7 years, which was significantly lower than the mean age of vascular epulides (37.1 ± 15.4) (P = 0.018). The most common epulides observed were pyogenic granuloma (PG), (35.7%) followed by fibroepithelial hyperplasia (14.3%) and peripheral ossifying fibroma (10.7%). Conclusions: The most common epulis in this study was PG. It is desirable for the clinician to have a good knowledge of the frequency and distribution of epulides when establishing a diagnosis and formulating a treatment plan.
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Attitude of parents in a Niger Delta community towards ear, nose and throat diseases among their children: A preliminary study p. 98
Bright Otoghile, Matilda Uju Ibekwe, Ebidisemene Linda Totyen, Appah Naomi Inei
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_19_19  
Background: Ear, nose and throat (ENT) diseases occur commonly in childhood. Some of these diseases are the potential causes of mortality among children, particularly when they are not managed appropriately and timely. Hence, the aim of this study was to find the attitude of parents towards ENT diseases among their children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study carried out within 1 year (from August 2018 to July 2019) among the parents at Okolobiri, Bayelsa state, in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Parents were interviewed with a structured questionnaire to find their attitude towards ENT diseases. Data obtained were analysed, and results were presented in a descriptive format. Results: This study involved 61 parents. There were 7 male (fathers) and 54 female (mothers) with a mean age of 33 years. The children of 42 parents had a history of ear disease, 40 had a history of nasal complaint and 21 had a history of throat complaint. A total of 5 parents sought medical treatment, 32 parents embarked on self-medication and 16 parents sought no medical treatment. Conclusion: Majority of parents at Okolobiri have negative attitude towards ENT diseases affecting their children. There is an urgent need to improve on community awareness programmes in this community to avoid risky health practices among parents towards their children.
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Reference interval of fasting plasma glucose in apparently healthy adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria p. 102
Frederick Igila Allison, Aaron C Ojule
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_20_19  
Background: Reference values of most assays in use in many chemical pathology laboratories in Nigeria are usually those of the manufacturer of diagnostic kit using non-indigenous reference populations. This is professionally unacceptable, so this study was aimed at determining a reference value for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in adults living in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, using our indigenous population. Methods: A total of 332 non-diabetic subjects who met the inclusion criteria for this study were recruited after they had signed the consent forms. After an overnight fast, about 2 ml of blood was collected into the fluoride oxalate bottles and was assayed the same day using the glucose oxidase method. Each sample was measured in duplicate and an average was calculated. The data were statistically analysed using the SPSS version 20 and the significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The reference interval of FPG was calculated by the non-parametric method after data had been screened for outliers and ranked. This was done using the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile due to the skewed nature of the data, and the reference interval of FPG obtained was 3.1–5.8 mmol/l. Conclusion: The reference interval obtained from this study was different but close to that obtained in 2008 in Port Harcourt and more importantly different from those provided by manufacturers of the diagnostic kit (4.2–6.4 mmol/l). The use of this new reference interval is recommended to be necessary for better management of patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The need to use locally determined reference intervals is emphasised.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Two nights in one day: A case report of paraganglioma in sickle cell disease and a review of the literature p. 106
Okeoghene G Egigba, Clement Odigie Osime, Victor Ekanem, Paul Jibril
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_12_19  
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic lifelong disease seen typically in Sub-Saharan Africans, the Mediterranean region and parts of Asia. The condition may be associated with other clinical entities. Aim of Presentation: We present a case of malignant variant of paraganglioma in a 34-year-old SCD patient to highlight the fact that some very rare clinical entities may be found in this category of patients. Case Report: Miss B.O. was a 34-year-old SCD patient who presented with features of an intra-abdominal mass. Incisional biopsy done from a mass arising from the left adrenal gland confirmed a malignant variant of paraganglioma. Post-exploratory laparotomy, the patient's clinical state deteriorated and she died 25 days after surgery. Conclusion: Malignant variant of a paraganglioma, a very rare clinical condition, may be found in SCD patients.
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The application of VY advancement flap in the reconstruction of fingertip injuries: Report of two cases p. 110
Ifeanyi Charles Nwagbara, Pius Fokam
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_24_19  
The V-Y advancement flap reconstruction technique as modified by Atasoy et al. is a reliable method for the management of fingertip amputations. It preserves the normal contour of the finger, helps pad the fingertip, preserves normal sensation and facilitates quick return to work. In this report, we present two cases of fingertip injuries that were managed by the V-Y flap advancement technique.
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