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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2019
Volume 13 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 47-86

Online since Wednesday, October 30, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Adolescent sex education: Prevalence, sources and perspective among senior secondary school students in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State p. 47
Nneka Gabriel-Job, Joyce Okagua
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_13_19  
Background: Adequate sex education is an essential tool for all adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of adolescents who have had access to sexuality education, their source and their perspective to sexuality education in Obio/Akpor local government area (LGA) of Rivers State. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive school based study. A multistage sampling method was used to select four secondary schools (two public and two private) in Obio/Akpor LGA of Rivers State. The study participants were recruited by simple balloting from the senior secondary classes. The study instrument was a pretested semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed with Epi Info version 7.2.2.16 statistical programme. In all cases, a value of P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Results: One thousand one hundred and ten participants were recruited for the study, ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with a mean age of 15.5 ± 1.6 years. Majority (91.9%) of the participants have been taught sex education. More males and students from public schools had not been taught sex education. Sources of sex education were school (58.3%) and parents (13.5%). Most (74.0%) of the students preferred a school-based sex education taught by their teachers and 96.5% supports sex education to be incorporated into the school curriculum. Furthermore, majority of the students acknowledged that sex education will help them prevent sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS, pregnancy and help them relate better with the opposite sex. Conclusion: It is concluded that every child irrespective of the gender, school type be given access to adequate sex education. Parents and teachers are encouraged to ensure that the appropriate age-specific information is given to the children to prevent them from accessing wrong information from unreliable sources. There is need to incorporate sex education into the secondary school curriculum.
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Ectopic pregnancy: A 5-year review of cases in a secondary health facility in Delta State, Nigeria p. 53
Williams Obukohwo Odunvbun
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_5_19  
Background: Ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors remain a public health concern, with attendant maternal morbidity and mortality. Due to the reported increase in prevalence in several studies across Nigeria in the last few decades, periodic review of management is of relevance for institutional comparison. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and management of ectopic pregnancy in Eku Baptist Government Hospital, a secondary health facility providing free maternity services, and compare these with an earlier study in the same facility and other parts of Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study of cases of ectopic pregnancy managed at Eku Baptist Government Hospital in a 5-year period: 1 January 2013–31 December 2017. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 22 (IBM). Results: The institutional prevalence rate of ectopic pregnancy was 2.7%. Ectopic pregnancies constituted 12.2% (113/926) of gynaecological admissions. The mean age of participants was 29 ± 5.5 years, and 69.5% of them were married. The highest (59.1%) risk for ectopic pregnancy was previously induced abortion. The most frequent (94.3%) complaint at presentation was a lower abdominal pain. Ruptured ectopic accounted for 97.1% of cases. All the patients had laparotomy including three unruptured cases. There was no fatality in this study amongst participants. Conclusion: This study established a lower prevalence of ectopic pregnancy and zero mortality, with the introduction of free maternity service, compared to an earlier study. This findings suggest earlier presentation of patients with ectopic pregnancy. Prevalence and outcome of ectopic pregnancy can be further improved by effective contraceptive enlightenment and use, provision of postabortion care, provision of facilities for early detection and management.
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Medical coma in a secondary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria: A 3-year review p. 58
Edith O Kayode-Iyasere, Austine O Obasohan, Francis E Odiase
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_6_19  
Background: Medical coma is an emergency requiring prompt decision and immediate intervention. Knowledge of the commoner causes of coma would improve the treatment outcome. Aim: The aim of our study was to describe the frequency and pattern of medical coma in a secondary health center in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: It was a retrospective review of the medical records of all comatose adult patients, admitted between January 2012 and December 2016 at the Central Hospital Benin. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the medical records of each patient. Data was analyzed using statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results: Ninety patients presented in coma within the 3-year period under review and, this constituted 1.7% of all medical admissions. There were 49 (54.4%) males and 41 (45.6%) females with a mean age of 64.6 ±17.0 years. The Glasgow coma score ranged from 3 – 8. The commonest cause of coma was stroke (57.9%), followed by metabolic and toxic causes (23.3%) and central nervous system infections (11.1%). The main presenting complains were sudden collapse (85.6%) and fever (31.6%). The most predisposing co-morbid conditions were hypertension (71.1%) and diabetes mellitus (24.4%). Conclusion: Stroke was the most frequent cause of coma. With the high mortality associated with the comatose state, it is hoped that preventive measures to identify and treat risk factors for stroke be vigorously pursued.
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Content analysis of mobile health applications on pregnancy yoga p. 63
Vijayalakshmi Anbu, Narasimman Swaminathan
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_1_19  
Background: The awareness of yoga has improved its utilisation for health benefits across the globe. This work analysed the contents of the available mobile apps on Android and iPhone operating system (iOS) platforms. Understanding the existing apps will form a base to develop a better app to encourage and mentor the pregnant women while performing yoga for health benefits. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyse the contents of the available mobile apps on Android and iOS platforms on 'Pregnancy Yoga'. Methods: Both the researchers independently searched online and analysed the contents present in the mobile health apps (mhealth apps) related to pregnancy yogas that were available in two platforms – The Apple and Google Play stores. A search for pregnancy yoga apps in both these platforms yielded a total of 100 and 200 apps, respectively. A cross-sectional study was performed on this sample of 300 available mobile apps. Results: Out of the 300 mhealth apps identified, it was found that five pregnancy yoga apps from iOS and 45 from Google Play stores were relevant to pregnancy yoga and the other apps focused either on pregnancy-related health tips or common yoga apps. Therefore, only 50 (16.6%) mhealth apps could be included as per the criteria. The mobile apps that met the inclusion criteria were 5 (1.6%) from iOS and 45 (15%) from Google play stores. Conclusion: The study shows that the content of a number of apps is not sufficient and evidences the presence of apps that include videos to track yoga poses, their benefits for each trimester, especially videos, and also the apps that enable one to set-up reminders. Pranayama techniques such as bhamari, sithagiri and yoga nithra (relaxation) require information to improve the well-being of pregnant women. These data are not included in the pregnancy mobile apps. Hence, there is a need for well-designed applications to promote yoga in every stage of pregnancy. The available apps should be able to track the yoga practice and provide immediate feedback and consultation by experts.
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Factors responsible for discontinuation of long-term reversible contraceptives in a tertiary facility in Northeastern Nigeria p. 67
Muhammad Baffah Aminu, Lamaran Makama Dattijo, Abubakar Muhammad Shehu, Saidu Abubakar Kadas, Calvin Melaya Chama
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_7_19  
Background: The emergence of long-term reversible contraceptives (LARC) has helped in reaffirming the concept of Family Planning (FP) 2020. LARC is one of the safest and most effective methods covering both hormonal implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs). However, despite their acceptability and wide usage, they are associated with undesired effects limiting their use ranging from personal to device-related or both. Aim: This study is aimed at determining the reasons for the discontinuation of LARCs among women accessing FP services in Bauchi. Methods: The study was for 1-year period. It was a retrospective survey of 335 clients that presented to the FP unit of a tertiary institution in Northeastern Nigeria for removal of implants. Data were inputted into and analysed using SPSS version 21 and results presented in tables and charts. Results: A total of 1069 clients had one method of contraception or the other over the study periods. About 335 (31.3%) clients had removal of LARCs (53.4%, 18.2% and 28.4%, for Implanon, Jadelle and IUDs, respectively). The mean parities of the clients were 3 +_ 0.55. The most common indications for removal of implants observed in the study included, the desire for pregnancy (38.5%), expired implants and untolerable side effects (24.5%) each. Conclusions: LARCs were the most common form of contraceptives used by women during the study period. The most common reason for removal of LARCs implants discovered was for feature pregnancy, undesired effects and implants expiry.
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Neurosurgical speciality nursing training for neurosurgical facilities in West Africa: A pivotal, prospective single – Hospital study in Nigeria p. 72
David Okon Udoh, Roselyn Otekpen Ademola, Abiodun Luqman Azeez, Priscilla Isibakhomen Uabor
DOI:10.4103/phmj.phmj_15_19  
Background: The diversity of medical and surgical specialities unequivocally places a great demand for continuing subspecialisation within nursing services for safe and efficient patient care, especially in tertiary institutions. Although orthopaedic, psychiatric, obstetrics, intensive care and ophthalmic nursing are established, neurosurgical nursing is almost unknown in West Africa. Aim: The aim of this study is to document the indigenous training of dedicated subspeciality nursing staff for neurosurgical facilities in West Africa using a simple, reproducible design. Study Design/Setting: A prospective observational study of the effect of specialised neurosurgical nursing care on the volume and outcomes of patient care in a new neurosurgical unit in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Methods: Twenty-six nurses (from nursing officer II to chief nursing officer cadres) were selected from various hospital units for training in neurosurgical nursing. None had previous exposure to neurosurgery, although they had between them 6 months to 30 years of nursing experience in tertiary institutions. They received structured training in neurosurgical patient care. Results: Over 13 years, we established a fully dedicated neurosurgical facility with 30 speciality nurses and other in-house staff. The pre- and post-training tests showed significant gain in the knowledge of basic neurosciences and neurosurgical patient care. Yearly re-training showed similar results. The increase in numbers of in-patient admissions and operations, as well as reduction in mortality, underscored improved patient care. Conclusion: Subspeciality training of dedicated nurses in neurosurgical care facilitates the rapid growth of new neurosurgical units, facilitates nursing expertise and improves outcomes of patient care when compared with the lack of neurosurgical training for nurses.
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