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Evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease
Ehimen Phyllis Odum, Esther Okiemute Udi
May-August 2017, 11(2):60-66
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with CKD.
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of the various cardiovascular risk factors in CKD patients and compare with that of healthy controls.
A case-controlled study. The study sample included 94 diagnosed CKD patients above the age of 18 years without symptoms of cardiac disease and 70 controls. Fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, creatinine, albumin, glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio were estimated in participants. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0.
The cardiovascular risk factors found in CKD patients versus controls were hypertension (62.7% vs. 11.4%), diabetes (13.8% vs. 7.1%), dyslipidaemia (50.0% vs. 31.4%), obesity (14.9% vs. 20.0%), hypoalbuminaemia (19.1% vs. 0%), microalbuminuria (55.3% vs. 20.0%) and macroalbuminuria (21.3% vs. 0%). However, only the prevalences of hypertension (
< 0.001), hypertriglyceridaemia (
= 0.007), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (
= 0.050), hypoalbuminaemia (
= 0.007), microalbuminuria (
< 0.001) and macroalbuminuria (
< 0.001) were statistically significant. Patients on maintenance haemodialysis had higher prevalence of hypertension (
= 0.018) and hypoalbuminaemia (
= 0.001) than pre-dialysis patients.
Prevalences of hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL, hypoalbuminaemia, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were significantly higher in CKD patients than in controls.
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