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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-20

Risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy

1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Acheivers University, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
3 Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
4 Department of Medicine, General Hospital, Obangede, Nigeria
5 Department of Clinical Services, Zonal Hospital, Okene, Nigeria
6 Department of Hospital Services, State Ministry of Health, Okene, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
F O Akinbo
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Sciences, University of Benin, Benin, Edo State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/phmj.phmj_5_17

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Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) improves immunity and reduces the occurrence of enteroparasitic infections. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients on HAART in Kogi State, Nigeria. Methods: Blood and stool specimens were collected from 511 subjects including 411 HIV patients on HAART and 100 apparently healthy non-HIV individuals. The blood specimens were used to determine CD4 count and haemoglobin concentration, whereas the stool specimens were processed to detect intestinal parasites using standard techniques. Socio-demographic data were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. Results: Entamoeba histolytica was the predominant parasites recovered generally and in both genders as well as being the only parasite that was associated with immunodeficiency as measured by CD4 count <200 cell/μL (P = 0.0059) HIV status was a significant risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infection (odds ratio = 8.213 95% confidence interval = 1.971, 34.225; P = 0.0012). Among the other risk factors, CD4 count <200 cell/μL (P < 0.0001) and farming (P = 0.0202) were associated with intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients on HAART. Conclusion: An overall prevalence of 14.4% of intestinal parasitic infections was observed among HIV patients on HAART in this study. Routine diagnosis of intestinal parasites among HIV patients on HAART is advocated.

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